The Turks are a Middle Eastern civilization in Age of Empires II who originated from Central Asia and are based on the Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum (shown in the Manzikert scenario) and the Ottoman Empire. The Turks are cavalry-and-gunpowder-oriented and are primarily an offensive civilization.
The Turks were best known for winning many battles in the Crusades as well as successfully besieging Constantinople which ended European foothold of the Silk Road and contact with the Orient. The Turks were also highly involved in the sciences and mathematics especially in the area of Alchemy that would later form the backbone of modern chemistry. Being an Islamic civilization, they were notable for transmitting this knowledge to the west. To reflect this achievement, Turks mine gold faster and research Chemistry for free. This allows them to use gunpowder units immediately. They also used gunpowder quite effectively, becoming the first "gunpowder empire," having received it from their control of the Silk Road. Therefore, many of their unique bonuses and technology benefits their gunpowder units. They have stronger yet lower costing gunpowder units from Archery Ranges, Siege Workshops and Docks. These gunpowder units are also created faster granted by their team bonus. However, their Mangonels are inferior to most civilizations as they lack the Onager upgrade and subsequently, the Siege Onager upgrade. In the Dock, they only lack the Fast Fire Ship upgrade, but everything else is available. Therefore, when playing as the Turks, given their civilization bonus and team bonus, it is advisable to create more gunpowder units in their armies. Their unique unit, the Janissary, is a gunpowder unit that is essentially a more powerful version of the Hand Cannoneer. The Janissary is strong against infantry and even cavalry if massed, but are surprisingly weak against most other archer units, especially Skirmishers. The Turks also have free cavalry upgrades. Artillery, their unique technology, increases range for all cannon units. This allows Bombard Towers and Bombard Cannons to hit targets from further away and gives Turkish Elite Cannon Galleons 17 range. Turkish Elite Cannon Galleons with Artillery and Trebuchets with Siege Engineers researched are tied for longest range attack in the game. All that being said, the Turks also possess strong cavalry tech trees (lacking only Paladins) and fully-upgraded Cavalry Archers) to make a fast strong army.
The Turks is the only civilization that cannot upgrade their Spearmen to Pikemen or Skirmishers to Elite Skirmishers. Despite lacking these two important upgrades to counter infantry and archers, they have arguably the best Cavalry Archer and Heavy Cavalry Archer after researching one of their unique technologies, Sipahi, from The Forgotten onwards, as they have 90 HP for the Cavalry Archer and 100 HP for the Heavy Cavalry Archer.
The Turks' biggest threats are the Italians and Goths, since the former have strong anti-cavalry and anti-gunpowder capacity with Genoese Crossbowmen and Condottieri (in addition to the Turks lacking the necessary counters for Genoese Crossbowmen like Elite Skirmishers and the Onager upgrade); while the Goths' Huskarls and cheaper Halberdiers will make quick work of the Turkish gunpowder and cavalry units respectfully (the Turks have to rely on Champions and beefy Hand Cannoneers to counter the Goths' infantry army). The Turks are a formidable foe to any infantry civilization such as the Aztecs, Teutons, and the Japanese, due to their wide variety of units to counter their infantry (such as the Janissary unit).
Unique Unit: Janissary (more powerful hand cannoneer with increased range,)