The Mongols are an East Asian civilization situated in the nomadic steppes of Central Asia and the Mongolian plains featured in Age of Empires II. They were a collection of nomadic tribes from the steppes of Central Asia and Siberia. They were fierce warriors who were best known for establishing the largest contiguous overland empire in human history. At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Mongol clans became united under Temujin who later became known as Genghis Khan following a campaign of foreign conquest of more developed and technologically advanced civilizations across East Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. At its height, their empire stretched from Korea, across Asia, and into European Russia to the Baltic Sea coast. They held most of Asia Minor, modern Iraq, modern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tibet, parts of India, parts of Burma, all of China, and parts of Vietnam.
Although greatly outnumbered in many key battles, the Mongols utilized a variety of guerilla warfare tactics involving highly skilledcavalryarchers whose long range and accuracy provided by the unprecedented Mongol recurve bow gave them a great advantage on the battlefield. Much of the army consisted of light cavalry which were extremely light troops compared to those of other armies. This allows them to execute tactics and maneuvers that would have been impractical. Having this mobility made it possible to send them on successful scouting missions, gathering intelligence about routes and terrain suited to the preferred combat tactics of the Mongols. This is reflected by their civilization bonus, team bonus and their unique technology.
The Mongols' greatest advantages lie in their cavalry archers and their siege weaponry. They also have complete access to all regular infantry technologies with the exception of Halberdiers and all siege weapons except for the Bombard Cannon can be upgraded to their maximum level. This means that Mongol games often include at least some (if not hordes) of Cavalry Archers and Mangudai along with siege rams filled with champions. With their Drills upgrade, a small group of Mongol siege rams can perform hit-and-run attacks on isolated bases and resource collecting operations. Mangonels and Scorpions become unusually deadly as well. Overall, the Mongols excel at mobility and quick devastation. However their defense is somewhat lacking, as their Watch Towers can only be upgraded once and cannot build Bombard Towers. Mongols can also rely on Camels, being, beside the Chinese, one of the two only civilizations not coming from Sub-Saharan Africa or the Middle East to possess Camels, compensating for their lack of effective heavy cavalry.
Gameplay wise, the Mongols will endure a hard time against civilizations that either have strong anti-cavalry archer capacity (i.e. Berbers' Camel Archers and Genitours, Goths' Huskarls, and Italians' Genoese Crossbowman) or civilizations with very strong camels (i.e. Saracens and Indians) to deal with the Mongol's frontline cavalry. The Mongols will have no problem facing civilizations with less mobile army compositions and/or weaker cavalry (i.e. Teutons, Vikings, Celts, Chinese, Britons, Ethiopians, and many Mesoamerican civilization such as the Aztecs, Mayans, Incas) due to their high mobility of their siege weapons and faster firing Mangudai makes it incredibly hard to deal with late game due to the lack of a mobile army that would deal with the Mongol's lategame hit-and-run tactics.
Batu Khan - a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan.
Chepe - (Jebe or Jebei) the one of the prominent Noyans (generals) of Genghis Khan. He belonged to the Besud clan, part of the Taichud tribe, which was under Targudai Khiriltug's leadership at the time of Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan(c. 1162 – August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the Great Khan and founder of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties.
Guyuk Khan - the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248.
Kabul - the first known Khan of the Khamag Mongol confederation and great-grandfather to Genghis Khan.
Khubilai Khan - the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position). He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.
Kitboga - a Nestorian Christian of the Turkic Naiman tribe, a group that was subservient to the Mongol Empire. He was a lieutenant and confidant of the Mongol Ilkhan Hulagu, assisting him in his conquests in the Middle East.
Kushluk was a member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia who became the last ruler of Qara Khitai empire. The Naimans were defeated by Genghis Khan and he fled westward to the Qara Khitai, where he became an advisor. He later rebelled, usurped the throne and took control of Qara Khitai. He was killed in 1218 by the Mongols and the domain of the Qara Khitai absorbed into the rising Mongol Empire.
Mongke Khan - the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from 1251 to 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign.
Ogedei Khan - the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia.
Subotai was an Uriankhai general, and the primary military strategist of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. He directed more than twenty campaigns in which he conquered thirty-two nations and won sixty-five pitched battles, during which he conquered or overran more territory than any other commander in history. He gained victory by means of imaginative and sophisticated strategies and routinely coordinated movements of armies that were hundreds of kilometers away from each other.
Tamerlane was a Turco-Mongol conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur's background was Iranized and not steppe nomadic.
Toktamish Khan - a prominent khan of the Blue Horde, briefly unified the White Horde and Blue Horde subdivisions of the Golden Horde into a single state. He descended from Genghis Khan's grandson, Tuqa-Timur.
Uzbeg - a longest-reigning khan of the Golden Horde, under whose rule the state reached its zenith.